Grade 8 Science

NECAP Standards
Cycle of Review and Revision
K-8 Curriculum Alignment
YHS Syllabi
Curriculum Brochures
Curriculum Maps
YHS Program of Studies
Maine Learning Results 

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Barbara Maling
Director of Curriculum and Instruction

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Grade Eight Science & Technology
Scope and Sequence

Students will be actively involved in learning experiences with themes focused on:
  • Darwin’s World – Evolution, Adaptation, and Genetics
  • Galileo’s World – Physics (Heat, Light, Sound) and Chemical Technology
  • Cousteau’s World – Pollution, Water Quality, and Ocean Environment
  • Electricity and Electric Motors
  • Engineering the Air Dragster to Racing Specifications
  • Architecture: the McIntire Garrison project
  • Drafting: Sketchup 6

YORK SCHOOL DEPARTMENT
CURRICULUM ALIGNMENT
SUBJECT AREA: SCIENCE 
GRADE: 8

Content Standards

Performance Indicators

Instructional Practice

Assessment Tools

Reporting Tools

A. UNIFYING THEMES - Students apply the principles of systems, models, constancy and change, and scale in science and technology. 
A.1. SYSTEMS
Students describe and apply principles of systems in human-made and natural things and processes.

a. Explain how individual parts working together in a system (including organisms, Earth systems, solar system or man-made structures) can do more than each part individually.

Identify the parts of a basic electric motor system, and explain how a circuit acts as a system. (IT)
Explain how a building is a system designed to provide shelter for humans and animals. (IT)
Discuss how the solar system would be different without all planets and stars.
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b. Explain how the output of one part of the system, including waste products from manufacturing or organisms, can become the input of another part of a system.
Identify the many ways industry recycles wood, plastic, and metals to create new systems.(IT)
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c. Describe how systems are nested and that systems may be thought of as containing subsystems (as well as being a subsystem of a larger system) and apply the understanding to analyze systems.

Identify the subsystems of a modern transportation system. (IT)
Discuss how the solar system would be different without all planets and stars.


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A.2. MODELS
Students use models to examine a variety of real-world phenomena from the physical setting, the living environment and the technological world and compare advantages and disadvantages of various models.

a. Compare different types of models that can be used to represent the same thing (including models of chemical reactions, motion, or cells) in order to match the purpose and complexity of a model to its use.

Analyze the electric motor model while constructing its parts. (IT)
Analyze the Air Dragster model while constructing its parts. (IT)
Identify architectural features in the design and construction of the McIntire Garrison model while comparing the existing garrison located in York.
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b. Propose changes to models, and explain how those changes may better reflect the real thing.

Design, construct and revise the Air Dragstermodel race car following race track specifications.

Design the Air Dragster race car taking advantage of reduced friction, positive aerodynamics, and Newton's second law: (force=mass x acceleration).
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A.3. CONSTANCY AND CHANGE
Students describe how patterns of change vary in physical, biological, and technological systems.

a. Describe systems that are changing including ecosystems, Earth systems and technologies.

Examine the causes and effects of global warming as related to Earth systems.


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b. Give examples of systems including ecosystems, Earth systems, and technologies that appear to be unchanging (even though things may be changing within the system) and identify any feedback mechanisms that may be modifying the changes.

Examine the natural cycles (e.g. water, nitrogen, carbon, etc.) in the environment.         


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c. Describe rates of change and cyclic patterns using appropriate grade level mathematics.

Compare data of carbon footprints over time.


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A.4. Scale
Students use scale to describe objects, phenomena, or processes related to Earth, space, matter, and mechanical and living systems

a. Describe how some things change or work differently at different scales.

Illustrate orthographic drawings to scale. (IT)


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b. Use proportions, averages, and ranges to describe small and large extremes of scale.

Solve scale problems using proportions. (IT)

Solve proportion problems using scale factors.  (CMP math)


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B. THE SKILLS AND TRAITS OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY AND TECHNOLOGICAL DESIGN - Students plan, conduct, analyze data from and communicate results of in-depth scientific investigations; and they use a systematic process, tools, equipment, and a variety of materials to create a technological design produce a solution or product to meet a specified need.
B.1. SKILLS AND TRAITS OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
Students plan, conduct, analyze data from and communicate results of investigations, including simple experiments.

a. Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.
 
Draw a plan for the Tower Crane Project. (IT)
 
Design a plan for the Ping Pong Throwing machine Project using drafting tools. (IT)
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b. Design and safely conduct scientific investigations including experiments with controlled variables.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.
 
Design a plan for the Ping Pong Throwing machine Project using drafting tools. (IT)
 
Design the tower crane project utilizing the Apple Draw CAD program. (IT)
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c. Use appropriate tools, metric units and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

Apply observation skills to various labs and activities throughout the year. Report data using a variety of charts, tables, graphs and diagrams.
 
Employ the use of appropriate tools for given activities and labs.

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d. Use mathematics to gather, organize, and present data; and structure convincing explanations.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.
 
Design the ping pong toss machine using isometric drawing techniques to scale. (IT)
 
Research technological topics with the laptops. (IT)
 
Employ Web Quest as preparation for all units. (IT)
 
Solve   math formulas utilized in the designs of machines. (IT)  
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e. Use logic, critical reasoning and evidence to develop descriptions, explanations, predictions and models.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.
 
Cooperative learning tool.  Analyze technology systems for problems. (IT)
 
Apply trouble shooting skills to all project designs. (IT)
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f. Communicate, critique, and analyze own scientific work and the work of other students.

 Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.
 
Design, construct, test and revise the ping pong toss machine. (IT)

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B.2. SKILLS AND TRAITS OF TECHNOLOGICAL DESIGN
Students use a systematic process, tools, equipment, and a variety of materials to design and produce a solution or product to meet a specified need, using established criteria.

a. Identify appropriate problems for technological design.

Design, build and test a ping pong toss machine using one of the three classes of lever. (IT)
 
Design, build and test a model Tower Crane to lift a predetermined weight. (IT)
 
Experiment with tools and materials common to metallurgy.  (IT)
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b. Design a solution or product.

Design, build and test a ping pong toss machine using one of the three classes of lever. (IT)
 
Design, build and test a model Tower Crane to lift a predetermined weight. (IT)
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c. Communicate a proposed design using drawings and simple models.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Design, build and test a ping pong toss machine using one of the three classes of lever. (IT)
 
Design, build and test a model Tower Crane to lift a predetermined weight. (IT)
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d. Implement a proposed design.

Design, build and test a ping pong toss machine using one of the three classes of lever. (IT)
 
Design, build and test a model Tower Crane to lift a predetermined weight. (IT)

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e. Evaluate a completed design or product.

Evaluate progress by utilizing the standard (IT) evaluation form used for all projects.

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f. Suggest improvements for their own and others' designs and try out proposed modifications.

Utilize cooperative learning strategies to improve designs and written and oral work.
 
Design, build, test and revise a ping pong toss machine using one of the three classes of lever. (IT)
 
Design, build, test and revise a model Tower Crane to lift a predetermined weight. (IT)
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g. Explain the design process including the stages of problem identification, solution design, implementation, and evaluation.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.
 
Cooperative learning tool.  Analyze technology systems for problems. (IT)
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C. The Scientific and Technological Enterprise - Students understand the history and nature of scientific knowledge and technology, the processes of inquiry and technological design, and the impacts science and technology have on society and the environment.
C.1. UNDERSTANDINGS OF INQUIRY
Students describe how scientists use varied and systematic approaches to investigations that may lead to further investigations.

a. Explain how the type of question informs the type of investigation.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.
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b. Explain why it is important to identify and control variables, and replicate trials in experiments.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.

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c. Describe how scientists' analysis of findings can lead to new investigations.

 


 

 

C.2. UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Students recognize the differences between scientific inquiry and technological design.

a. Compare the processes of scientific inquiry to the process of technological design.

Examine the use of the Technological Design Model as it relates to all student made projects. (IT)


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b. Explain how constraints and consequences relate to scientific inquiry and technological design.

Design the Air Dragster following specifications and constraints of the race track. (IT)


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C.3. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY
Students identify and describe the role of science and technology in addressing personal and societal challenges.

a. Describe how science and technology can help address societal challenges related to population, natural hazards, sustainability, personal health, and safety, and environmental quality.

Analyze the impacts technology has on our environment.

Analyze the benefits of recycling materials.

Analyze the impacts technology has on society.
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b. Identify personal choices that can either positively or negatively impact society in such areas as population, ecosystem sustainability, personal health and environmental quality.

Analyze the impacts technology has on our environment.

Analyze the benefits of recycling materials.

Analyze the impacts technology has on society.
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c. Identify factors that influence the development and use of science and technology.

Describe how science and technology work together to solve societies technological problems.


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C.4. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE
Students describe historical examples that illustrate how science advances knowledge through the scientists involved, and through the ways scientists think about their work and the work of others.

a. Describe how women and men of various backgrounds, working in teams or alone and communicating about their ideas extensively with others, engage in science, engineering and related fields.

Describe contributions of pioneers in the scientific community throughout history.


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b. Describe a breakthrough from the history of science that contributes to our current understanding of science.

Describe contributions of pioneers in the scientific community throughout history.


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c.  Describe the basis of understanding science as a human endeavor that generates explanations based on verifiable evidence that are subject to change when new evidence does not match existing explanations.

Describe contributions of pioneers in the scientific community throughout history.


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D. The Physical Setting - Students understand the universal nature of matter, energy, force and motion, and identify how these relationships are exhibited in Earth Systems, in the solar system and throughout the universe. 
D.1. UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM
Students explain the movements, and describe the location, composition, and characteristics of our solar system and universe, including planets, the sun, and galaxies.

a. Describe the different kinds of objects in the solar system including planets, sun, moons, asteroids and comets.

Review and identify celestial bodies in the solar system.


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b. Explain the motions that cause days, years, phases of the moon and eclipses.

 




 

c. Describe the location of our solar system in its galaxy as well as the existence of other galaxies made up of stars and planets.

Review and identify celestial bodies in our solar system as well as other galaxies.


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D.2. EARTH
Students describe the various cycles, physical and biological forces and processes, position in space, energy transformations, and human actions that affect short-term and long-term changes to the Earth.

a. Explain how the tilt of Earth's rotational axis relative to the plane of its yearly orbit around the Sun affects the day length and sunlight intensity to cause seasons.

Review and discuss the origins of the Earth and universe.


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b. Describe Earth Systems - biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere - and cycles and interactions within them (including water moving among and between them, rocks forming and transforming, and weather formation.)

Review and discuss the origins of the Earth and universe.


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c. Give several reasons why the climate is different in different regions of the Earth.

Describe the climate within different biomes.


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d. Discuss the significant Earth resources and how their limited supply affects how they are used.

Examine the energy sources on the planet.


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e. Describe the effect of gravity on objects on Earth.

Explore the concepts of motion, forces and energy, and use Newton's Laws to describe the effects of gravity on objects.


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f. Give examples of abrupt changes and slow changes in Earth Systems.

Describe geological changes on the earth’s surface.


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D.3. MATTER AND ENERGY
Students describe physical and chemical properties of matter, interactions and changes in matter, and transfer of energy through matter.

a. Describe that all matter is made up of atoms and distinguish between/among elements, atoms, and molecules.

Describe matter and energy in terms of particles and particle movement.


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b. Describe how physical characteristics of elements and types of reactions they undergo have been used to create the Periodic Table.

 


 

 

 

c. Describe the difference between physical and chemical change.

 


 

 

 

d. Explain the relationship of the motion of atoms and molecules to the states of matter for gases, liquids and solids.

 


 

 

 

e. Explain that atoms are packed together in arrangements that compose all substances including elements, compounds mixtures and solutions.

 


 

 

 

f. Explain and apply the understanding that substances have characteristic properties, including density, boiling point, and solubility and these properties are not dependent on the amount of matter present.

 


 

 

 

g. Use the idea of atoms to explain the conservation of matter.

 


 

 

 

h. Describe several different types of energy forms including heat energy, chemical energy, and mechanical energy.

 


 

 

 

i. Use examples of energy transformations from one form to another to explain that energy cannot be created or destroyed.

 


 

 

 

j. Describe how heat is transferred from one object to another by conduction, convection and/or radiation.

 


 

 

 

k. Describe the properties of solar radiation and its interaction with objects on Earth.

 


 

 

D.4. FORCE AND MOTION
Students describe the force of gravity, the motion of objects, the properties of waves and the wavelike property of energy in light waves.

a. Describe the similarities and differences in the motion of sound vibrations, earthquakes and light waves.

Compare the properties and motion of sound and light waves.


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b. Explain the relationship among visible light, the electromagnetic spectrum and sight.

Conduct experiments and explain light.


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c. Describe and apply an understanding of how the gravitational force between any two objects would change if their mass or the distance between them changed.

 


 

 

 

d. Describe and apply an understanding of how electric currents and magnets can exert force on each other.

 


 

 

 

e. Describe and apply an understanding of the effects of multiple forces will cause changes in the speed or direction.

 


 

 

E. The Living Environment - Students understand that cells are the basic unit of life, that all life as we know it has evolved through genetic transfer and natural selection to create a great diversity of organisms, and that these organisms create interdependent webs through which matter and energy flow. Students understand similarities and differences between humans and other organisms and the interconnections to these interdependent webs. 
E.1. BIODIVERSITY
Students differentiate among organisms based on biological characteristics, and identify patterns of similarity.

a. Compare physical characteristics that differentiate organisms into groups (including plants that make their own food, animals that consume energy rich food and organisms cannot easily be classified as either).

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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b. Explain how biologists use internal and external anatomical features to determine relatedness among organisms and to form the basis for classification systems.

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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c. Explain ways to determine whether organisms are the same species.

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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d. Describe how external and internal structures of animals and plants contribute to the variety of ways organisms are able to find food and reproduce.

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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E.2. ECOSYSTEMS
Students examine how the characteristics of the physical, non-living (abiotic) environment, the types and behaviors of living (biotic) organisms, and the flow of matter and energy affect organisms and the ecosystem of which they are part.

a. List various kinds of resources within different biomes for which organisms compete.

Review and discuss the various biomes on the planet.


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b. Describe ways in which two types of organisms may interact (including competition, predator/prey, producer/consumer/decomposer, parasitism, mutualism), and describe the positive and negative consequences such interactions have.

Review and discuss concepts in the ecosystem.


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c. Describe the source and flow of energy in the two major food webs, terrestrial and marine.

Review and discuss concepts in the ecosystem.


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d. Describe how matter and energy change from one form to another in living things and physical environment.

Review and discuss concepts in the ecosystem.


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e. Explain that the total amount of matter in the environment stays the same as its form and location change.

Review and discuss concepts in the ecosystem.

Describe matter and energy.


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E.3. CELLS Students describe the hierarchy of organization and function in organisms, and the similarities and differences in structure, function, and needs among and within organisms.

a. Describe the basic functions of organisms carried out within cells including the extracting of energy from food and the elimination of wastes.

Describe the need for the carbon and oxygen cycles.


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b. Explain the relationship among cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, including how tissues and organs serve the needs of cells and organisms.

Explain the relationships among cells as related to genetics and evolution.


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c.  Compare the structures, systems and interactions that allow single-celled organisms and multi-celled plants and animals, including humans, to defend themselves, acquire and use energy, self-regulate, reproduce, and coordinate movement.

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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d. Explain that all living things are composed of cells numbering from just one to millions.

Explain the relationships among cells as related to genetics and evolution.


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E.4. HEREDITY AND REPRODUCTION
Students describe the general characteristics and mechanisms of reproduction and heredity in organisms, including humans, and ways in which organisms are affected by their genetic traits.

a. Explain that sexual reproduction includes fertilization that results in the inclusion of genetic information from each parent and determines the inherited traits that are a part of every cell.

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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b. Identify some of the risks to the healthy development of an embryo including mother's diet, lifestyle and hygiene.

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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c. Describe asexual reproduction as a process by which all genetic information comes from one parent and determines the inherited traits that are a part of every cell.

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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E.5. EVOLUTION Students describe the evidence that evolution occurs over many generations, allowing species to acquire many of their unique characteristics or adaptations.

a. Explain how the layers of sedimentary rock and their contained fossils provide evidence for the long history of Earth and for the long history of changing life.

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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b. Describe how small differences between parents and offspring can lead to descendants who are very different from their ancestors.

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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c. Describe how variations in the behavior and traits of an offspring may permit some of them to survive a changing environment.

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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d. Explain that new varieties of cultivated plants and domestic animals can be developed through genetic modification and describe the impacts of the new varieties of plants and animals.

Explore concepts in evolution, adaptation and genetics.


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469 U.S. Route 1 York, Maine | Phone: 207-363-3403 | Fax: 207-363-5602 | Contact Us 

Vision
As the tides of the ocean and the strength of the mountain shape our community, the York Schools' commitment to educational excellence and individual achievement shapes the future of each student. 
Mission
The mission of York Schools is to educate, inspire and challenge all learners to be ethical citizens who will make a difference in a changing and complex world.