Grade 6 Science

NECAP Standards
Cycle of Review and Revision
K-8 Curriculum Alignment
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Curriculum Brochures
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Barbara Maling
Director of Curriculum and Instruction

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207- 363-3403

Grade Six Science
Scope and Sequence

Students will be actively involved in learning experiences focused on:
  • Plants! – Physiology, Photosynthesis
  • Sun, Moon, Earth – Phases, Tides, Seasons, Eclipses & The Solar System
  • Planets, Universe, Space Exploration
  • It Matters! – States of Matter, Structure of Matter, Changes in Matter, Types of Matter 
  • The Periodic Table of Elements & Molecules
  • Energy – Sources of Energy, Environmental Issues Surrounding the Sources of Energy, Alternative Energy, renewable vs. non-renewable, Solar Cars

YORK SCHOOL DEPARTMENT
CURRICULUM ALIGNMENT
SUBJECT AREA: SCIENCE
 GRADE: 6

Content Standards

Performance Indicators

Instructional Practice

Assessment Tools

Reporting Tools

A. UNIFYING THEMES - Students apply the principles of systems, models, constancy and change, and scale in science and technology.
A.1. SYSTEMS
Students describe and apply principles of systems in human-made and natural things and processes.

a. Explain how individual parts working together in a system (including organisms, Earth systems, solar system or man-made structures) can do more than each part individually.

Participate in direct instruction of the structure and function of various parts of a plant.
 
Describe the structure and function of the vascular system of plants including woody and herbaceous tissue, xylem & phloem.
 
Examine environmental issues surrounding deforestation and develop solutions.
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b. Explain how the output of one part of the system, including waste products from manufacturing or organisms, can become the input of another part of a system.

Conduct photosynthesis and respiration labs and recognize the materials needed and products produced from each process.
 
Understand the photosynthesis equation:
CO2 + H2O=C6H12O6 + H2O
 
Participate in energy debate and recognize the input and output materials for various forms of energy.
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c. Describe how systems are nested and that systems may be thought of as containing subsystems (as well as being a subsystem of a larger system) and apply the understanding to analyze systems.
Discuss the classification system used by scientists and describe a plant’s place in the system. 


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A.2. MODELS
Students use models to examine a variety of real-world phenomena from the physical setting, the living environment and the technological world and compare advantages and disadvantages of various models.
a. Compare different types of models  that can be used to represent the same thing (including models of chemical reactions, motion, or cells) in order to match the purpose and complexity of a model to its use.
Construct a model of a flower.

Design, construct, test and revise a solar car.
 
Assemble 3-D models of atoms
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b. Propose changes to models, and explain how those changes may better reflect the real thing.

Design, construct, test and revise a solar car.
 

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A.3. CONSTANCY AND CHANGE
Students describe how patterns of change vary in physical, biological, and technological systems.

a. Describe systems that are changing including ecosystems, Earth systems and technologies.

Participate in great energy debate.  Describe technologies that are available to improve environmental impacts.

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b. Give examples of systems including ecosystems, Earth systems, and technologies that appear to be unchanging (even though things may be changing within the system) and identify any feedback mechanisms that may be modifying the changes.
 

 

 

 

c. Describe rates of change and cyclic patterns using appropriate grade level mathematics.
 

 

 

A.4. Scale
Students use scale to describe objects, phenomena, or processes related to Earth, space, matter, and mechanical and living systems

a. Describe how some things change or work differently at different scales.

Construct a scale model of the solar system.

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b. Use proportions, averages, and ranges to describe small and large extremes of scale.

 

 

 

B.  THE SKILLS AND TRAITS OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY AND TECHNOLOGICAL DESIGN - Students plan, conduct, analyze data from and communicate results of in-depth scientific investigations; and they use a systematic process, tools, equipment, and a variety of materials to create a technological design produce a solution or product to meet a specified need.
B.1. SKILLS AND TRAITS OF SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY
Students plan, conduct, analyze data from and communicate results of investigations, including simple experiments.

a. Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations.

Design and conduct a plant experiment using the scientific method.
 
Conduct various experiments identifying variables: swinger, boats, plants investigations.

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b. Design and safely conduct scientific investigations including experiments with controlled variables.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Create data record sheet for plant experiment.

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c. Use appropriate tools, metric units and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data.

Apply observation skills to various labs and activities throughout the year.
 
Employ the use of appropriate tools for given activities and labs. 
 
Compare and convert between the metric measurement system and English measurement system.
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d. Use mathematics to gather, organize, and present data; and structure convincing explanations.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.

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e. Use logic, critical reasoning and evidence to develop descriptions, explanations, predictions and models.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Describe and defend design changes to solar cars.
 
Research and write a position paper for energy debate.
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f. Communicate, critique, and analyze own scientific work and the work of other students.

Analyze arguments given in energy debate.

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Design and conduct a scientific investigation.  Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.
 
Communicate scientific procedures and explanations.
 
Describe and defend design changes to solar cars.
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B.2. SKILLS AND TRAITS OF TECHNOLOGICAL DESIGN
Students use a systematic process, tools, equipment, and a variety of materials to design and produce a solution or product to meet a specified need, using established criteria.

a. Identify appropriate problems for technological design.

Design, build and test a solar car using the technological method.

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b. Design a solution or product.

 

 

 

 

c. Communicate a proposed design using drawings and simple models.

Design, build and test a solar car.
 


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d. Implement a proposed design.

Design, build and test a solar car.
 


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e. Evaluate a completed design or product.

Evaluate success of experiments using rubrics and peer and teacher review.

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f. Suggest improvements for their own and others' designs and try out proposed modifications.

Review constantly the method of communication used in labs, class discussions and projects.

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g. Explain the design process including the stages of problem identification, solution design, implementation, and evaluation.

Design and conduct a scientific investigation, use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze and interpret data.

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C. The Scientific and Technological Enterprise - Students understand the history and nature of scientific knowledge and technology, the processes of inquiry and technological design, and the impacts science and technology have on society and the environment.
C.1. UNDERSTANDINGS OF INQUIRY
Students describe how scientists use varied and systematic approaches to investigations that may lead to further investigations.

a. Explain how the type of question informs the type of investigation.

 

 

 

 

b. Explain why it is important to identify and control variables, and replicate trials in experiments.


 

c. Describe how scientists' analysis of findings can lead to new investigations.

 

 

 

C.2. UNDERSTANDINGS ABOUT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Students recognize the differences between scientific inquiry and technological design.

a. Compare the processes of scientific inquiry to the process of technological design.

Participate in direct instruction of scientific method and technological method.
 
Apply technological method to building solar car.
 
Appraise positions of each method and evaluate when each method would be appropriate to use.
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b. Explain how constraints and consequences relate to scientific inquiry and technological design.

Support the choice of variable to test for in plant experiment.

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C.3. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY
Students identify and describe the role of science and technology in addressing personal and societal challenges.

a. Describe how science and technology can help address societal challenges related to population, natural hazards, sustainability, personal health, and safety, and environmental quality.

Describe alternative energy solutions.
 
Participate in energy debate.
 
Research advantages and disadvantages of solar cars.

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b. Identify personal choices that can either positively or negatively impact society in such areas as population, ecosystem sustainability, personal health and environmental quality.

Participate in energy debate.
 
Conduct personal energy audit.

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c. Identify factors that influence the development and use of science and technology.

Participate in energy debate.
 
Create alternative energy books.

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C.4. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE
Students describe historical examples that illustrate how science advances knowledge through the scientists involved, and through the ways scientists think about their work and the work of others.

a. Describe how women and men of various backgrounds, working in teams or alone and communicating about their ideas extensively with others, engage in science, engineering and related fields.

 

 

 

 

b. Describe a breakthrough from the history of science that contributes to our current understanding of science.

Analysis and report of science current event.

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c.  Describe the basis of understanding science as a human endeavor that generates explanations based on verifiable evidence that are subject to change when new evidence does not match existing explanations.

 

 

 

D. The Physical Setting - Students understand the universal nature of matter, energy, force and motion, and identify how these relationships are exhibited in Earth Systems, in the solar system and throughout the universe.
D.1. UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEM
Students explain the movements, and describe the location, composition, and characteristics of our solar system and  universe, including planets, the sun, and galaxies.

a. Describe the different kinds of objects in the solar system including planets, sun, moons, asteroids and comets.

Classify different types of stars.
 
Participate in direct instruction of solar system and universe.

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b. Explain the motions that cause days, years, phases of the moon and eclipses.

Participate in direct instruction of seasons, phases of moon, orbit of the planets.
 
Create diagram to explain the phases of the moon.
 
Explain diagrams on NASA instruction website.
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c. Describe the location of our solar system in its galaxy as well as the existence of other galaxies made up of stars and planets.

 

 

 

D.2. EARTH
Students describe the various cycles, physical and biological forces and processes, position in space, energy transformations, and human actions that affect short-term and long-term changes to the Earth.

a Explain how the tilt of Earth's rotational axis relative to the plane of its yearly orbit around the Sun affects the day length and sunlight intensity to cause seasons.

Create diagrams that illustrate the reason for the seasons.
 
Explore NASA interactive website.

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b. Describe Earth Systems - biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere - and cycles and interactions within them (including water moving among and between them, rocks forming and transforming, and weather formation.)

Compare the environmental impact of different sources of energy.
 
Assess the effects of those energy sources on forests via greenhouse affect.
 
Participate in direct instruction on pollution and the greenhouse effect.
 
Interpret various climate relationships using the Great Ocean Rescue.
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c. Give several reasons why the climate is different in different regions of the Earth.

 

 

 

 

d. Discuss the significant Earth resources and how their limited supply affects how they are used.

Discuss renewable and non-renewable energy sources and their impact on the environment.

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e. Describe the effect of gravity on objects on Earth.

 

 

 

 

f. Give examples of abrupt changes and slow changes in Earth Systems.

Compare the negatives of different sources of energy.
 
Assess the effects of those energy sources on forests via greenhouse effect.
 
Participate in direct instruction on pollution and the greenhouse effect.
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D.3. MATTER AND ENERGY
Students describe physical and chemical properties of matter, interactions and changes in matter, and transfer of energy through matter.

a. Describe that all matter is made up of atoms and distinguish between/among elements, atoms, and molecules.

Participate in direct instruction of the Periodic Table of Elements and the parts of an atom.
 
Compare different models of the atom
 
Assemble 3-D models of atoms.

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b. Describe how physical characteristics of elements and types of reactions they undergo have been used to create the Periodic Table.

Participate in direct instruction and class discussion on how the Periodic Table is organized.
 
Research an element.

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c. Describe the difference between physical and chemical change.

 

 

 

 

d. Explain the relationship of the motion of atoms and molecules to the states of matter for gases, liquids and solids.

Participate in direct instruction on the states of matter.
 
Interpret results of states of matter lab.

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e. Explain that atoms are packed together in arrangements that compose all substances including elements, compounds mixtures and solutions.

Participate in direct instruction of elements compounds and mixtures.
 
Explain results of elements, compounds and mixtures lab.

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f. Explain and apply the understanding that substances have characteristic properties, including density, boiling point, and solubility and these properties are not dependent on the amount of matter present.

Conduct density lab.  Analyze data collected and develop conclusions.

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g. Use the idea of atoms to explain the conservation of matter.

 

 

 

 

h. Describe several different types of energy forms including heat energy, chemical energy, and mechanical energy.

Direct instruction of types of energy.

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i. Use examples of energy transformations from one form to another to explain that energy cannot be created or destroyed.

 

 

 

 

j. Describe how heat is transferred from one object to another by conduction, convection and/or radiation.

 

 

 

 

k. Describe the properties of solar radiation and its interaction with objects on Earth.

Describe solar energy and solar radiation.

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D.4. FORCE AND MOTION
Students describe the force of gravity, the motion of objects, the properties of waves and the wavelike property of energy in light waves.

a. Describe the similarities and differences in the motion of sound vibrations, earthquakes and light waves.

 

 

 

 

b. Explain the relationship among visible light, the electromagnetic spectrum and sight.

 

 

 

 

c. Describe and apply an understanding of how the gravitational force between any two objects would change if their mass or the distance between them changed.

 

 

 

 

d. Describe and apply an understanding of how electric currents and magnets can exert force on each other.

 

 

 

 

e. Describe and apply an understanding of the effects of multiple forces will cause changes in the speed or direction.

 

 

 

E. The Living Environment - Students understand that cells are the basic unit of life, that all life as we know it has evolved through genetic transfer and natural selection to create a great diversity of organisms, and that these organisms create interdependent webs through which matter and energy flow. Students understand similarities and differences between humans and other organisms and the interconnections to these interdependent webs.
E.1. BIODIVERSITY
Students differentiate among organisms based on biological characteristics, and identify patterns of similarity.

a. Compare physical characteristics that differentiate organisms into groups (including plants that make their own food, animals that consume energy rich food and organisms cannot easily be classified as either).

Examine, illustrate and label cross sections of woody and herbaceous stems.

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b. Explain how biologists use internal and external anatomical features to determine relatedness among organisms and to form the basis for classification systems.

 

 

 

 

c. Explain ways to determine whether organisms are the same species.

 

 

 

 

d. Describe how external and internal structures of animals and plants contribute to the variety of ways organisms are able to find food and reproduce.

Participate in direct instruction of adaptations and natural selection.
 
Explain how the environment influences adaptations.
 
Identify and describe different adaptations plants have made to survive in different ecosystems including ways of dispersing seeds.
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E.2. ECOSYSTEMS
Students examine how the characteristics of the physical, non-living (abiotic) environment, the types and behaviors of living (biotic) organisms, and the flow of matter and energy affect organisms and the ecosystem of which they are part.

a. List various kinds of resources within different biomes for which organisms compete.

 

 

 

 

b. Describe ways in which two types of organisms may interact (including competition, predator/prey, producer, consumer, decomposer, parasitism, mutualism), and describe the positive and negative consequences such interactions have.

Watch “Living Together” video.  Recall examples of relationships and categorize examples by similarities.
 
Describe different relationships between and among different organisms.

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c. Describe the source and flow of energy in the two major food webs, terrestrial and marine.

 

 

 

 

d. Describe how matter and energy change from one form to another in living things and physical environment.

Describe the process of photosynthesis and respiration including the input materials and products.
 
Understand the photosynthesis equation:
CO2 + H2O=C6H12O6 + H2O

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e. Explain that the total amount of matter in the environment stays the same as its form and location change.

Describe the process of photosynthesis and respiration including the input materials and products.
 
Understand the photosynthesis equation:
CO2 + H2O=C6H12O6 + H2O

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E.3. CELLS Students describe the hierarchy of organization and function in organisms, and the similarities and differences in structure, function, and needs among and within organisms.

a. Describe the basic functions of organisms carried out within cells including the extracting of energy from food and the elimination of wastes.

 

 

 

 

b. Explain the relationship among cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems, including how tissues and organs serve the needs of cells and organisms.

 

 

 

 

c.  Compare the structures, systems and interactions that allow single-celled organisms and multi-celled plants and animals, including humans, to defend themselves, acquire and use energy, self-regulate, reproduce, and coordinate movement.

Participate in direct instruction of plant structure and function, compare vascular tissue with other plant tissue.

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d. Explain that all living things are composed of cells numbering from just one to millions.

Use a microscope to investigate various tissues.
 
Examine, illustrate and label a cross section of woody and herbaceous stems.

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E.4. HEREDITY AND REPRODUCTION
Students describe the general characteristics and mechanisms of reproduction and heredity in organisms, including humans, and ways in which organisms are affected by their genetic traits.
a. Explain that sexual reproduction includes fertilization that results in the inclusion of genetic information from each parent and determines the inherited traits that are a part of every cell.
Describe the process of sexual reproduction in plants, and that the resulting seed contains genetic information from both parents.
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b. Identify some of the risks to the healthy development of an embryo including mother's diet, lifestyle and hygiene.

 

 

 

 

c. Describe asexual reproduction as a process by which all genetic information comes from one parent and determines the inherited traits that are a part of every cell.

Describe the process of asexual reproduction in plants (such as strawberry runners), and that the offspring only has genetic traits from one parent.

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E.5. EVOLUTION Students describe the evidence that evolution occurs over many generations, allowing species to acquire many of their unique characteristics or adaptations.

a. Explain how the layers of sedimentary rock and their contained fossils provide evidence for the long history of Earth and for the long history of changing life.

 

 

 

 

b. Describe how small differences between parents and offspring can lead to descendants who are very different from their ancestors.

Describe how plant adaptations over time help them to survive.
 
Participate in direct instruction of adaptations and natural selection in plants.

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c. Describe how variations in the behavior and traits of an offspring may permit some of them to survive a changing environment.

Identify different adaptations plants have made to move seeds.

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d. Explain that new varieties of cultivated plants and domestic animals can be developed through genetic modification and describe the impacts of the new varieties of plants and animals.

 

 

 


469 U.S. Route 1 York, Maine | Phone: 207-363-3403 | Fax: 207-363-5602 | Contact Us 

Vision
As the tides of the ocean and the strength of the mountain shape our community, the York Schools' commitment to educational excellence and individual achievement shapes the future of each student. 
Mission
The mission of York Schools is to educate, inspire and challenge all learners to be ethical citizens who will make a difference in a changing and complex world.